IJBLST 2016 Volume 8 Issue 2

International Journal of Biological Sciences and Technology (IJBLST) ISSN: 0975–8704

An Open Access Journal -- NO Fees -- NO Processing Charges -- 100% Non Profit Initiatives


Comparative Studies of Phytochemicals from the Leaf and Flower Extracts of Piliostigma thonningii and their Antibacterial Efficacy

Authors & Affiliation:

O. U. Igwe and F. Nwamezie

Department of Chemistry, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, P.M.B. 7267 Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria



This research explores and compares the phytochemical constituents of the leaf and flower extracts of Piliostigma thonningii and their possible antibacterial application. Employing gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technique, twenty-six phytochemical components were identified in the leaf comprising esters (47.23 %), fatty acids (38.87 %), alcohols (5.22 %), hydrocarbons (2.53 %), organic chloride (2.46 %), ketones (2.20 %), amide (0.93 %) and aromatic (0.56 %), while twenty-five were identified in the flower consisting fatty acids (52.42 %), hydrocarbons (32.74 %), terpene/terpenoids (4.75 %), ether (2.54 %), thiol (1.80 %), phenolic (1.78 %), halogenoalkane (1.52 %), aromatic alcohol (1.48 %) and ester (0.90 %). Using the disc diffusion method, both extracts inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. However, the flower extract showed a more potent inhibitory effect against the two bacteria organisms. Gentamycin was used as a standard antibacterial agent and its sensitivity was comparable to those of the extracts. The ability of the extracts to show significant antibacterial activity against the tested organisms could be the reason why the plant is used in herbal medication for the treatment of diseases and infections owing to the presence of enormous bioactive phytochemicals in them.

Keywords: Phytochemicals, Piliostigma thonningii, GC/MS Analysis, Antibacterial, Herbal medication