IJBLST 2017 Volume 9 Issue 4
International Journal of Biological Sciences and Technology (IJBLST) ISSN: 0975–8704
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Prophylactic Effect of Aqueous and Methanolic extracts of Andrographis Paniculata on Trypanosoma Brucei Brucei infected mice. Olanrewaju Timothy O., Olaleye Olusola O., Emmaunel Rolayo T. IJBLST (2017), 9(4):26-33
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Prophylactic Effect of Aqueous and Methanolic extracts of Andrographis Paniculata on Trypanosoma Brucei Brucei infected mice
Authors & Affiliation:
Olanrewaju Timothy O., Olaleye Olusola O., Emmaunel Rolayo T.
Human African Trypanosomiasis Research Department, Nigerian Institute for Trypanosomiasis Research (NITR), P.M.B 2077, No. 1 Surami Road, Ungwan Rimi, Kaduna, NIGERIA
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The prospect of immunization against the African trypanosomiasis appears remote due to it phenomenal antigenic variation. It is therefore necessary to search for new and more potent anti-trypanosomal compounds of natural origin to complement the existing synthetic anti-trypanosomal drugs that are gradually becoming less potent against the pathogenic trypanosomes. Andropgraphis paniculata; a medicinal plant in Asian has been tested in-vitro to has anti-trypanosomal activity. This study aimed at evaluating the prophylactic activity of aqueous and methanolic extract of Andrographis paniculata in Trypanosoma brucei brucei infected mice.Thirty six (36) male swiss mice of average weight 25g were group into six (6) groups of six (6) animals each. Group (A-D) were orally administered 5000mg/Kg of methanolic leaf, methanolic stem, aqueous leaf and aqueous stem extract of A. paniculata respectively while group E (infected) and F were the positive control and negative control group respectively. Animals were inoculated with 102 trypanosomes intraperitoneally after 10 days of extracts administration. The parasite growth, survival rate, rectal temperature, body weight, PCV and white blood cell differential count were monitored.High parasitic replication was observed in positive control group with 100% mortality on 10th day post infection. Some treated mice survived beyond 17 days post infection with no appearance of parasite. Treatment with aqueous leaf extract has the highest survival rate (67%) and aqueous stem extract has the least rate (33%). The rectal temperature showed no significant difference (P<0.05) in all treated group when compared with negative control. Mean body weight of group A and D showed no significant difference (P<0.05) compared to negative control group while group B, C and positive control showed significant difference. Treated mice maintained stable PCV but there was reduction in negative control. Negative control group revealed increase in lymphocyte and monocyte count compared with positive control. No significant difference in monocyte and neutrophil count in the treated groups when compared with positive control (P<0.05). A. paniculata leaf and stem contain bioactive components that exhibited trypanocidal activity. The active principles can be isolated for the development of cheap, safe and effective drugs for the treatment and management of African trypanosomiasis.
Keywords: Andrographis paniculata; Typanosoma brucei brucei; parasitaemia; trypanocidal activity; prophylactic.