IJBLST 2017 Volume 9 Issue 6
International Journal of Biological Sciences and Technology (IJBLST) ISSN: 0975–8704
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A Review on the Possibilities of the Application of Bioremediation Methods in the Oil Spill Clean-Up of Ogoni Land. Ogidi O.I., Njoku O.C. IJBLST (2017), 9(6):48-59
FULL TEXT SWF:
A Review on the Possibilities of the Application of Bioremediation Methods in the Oil Spill Clean-Up of Ogoni Land
Authors & Affiliation:
Ogidi O.I., Njoku O.C.
Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Ekowe, Bayelsa State, Nigeria
Many operations in the petroleum exploration, production and transportation have the potential to affect the environment in different degrees. Leakages from pipelines, oil wells, underground storage tanks of gas stations, improper disposal of petroleum wastes and stranded oil spills are the major sources of surface and groundwater contamination. There are physical, chemical, and biological methods of oil remediation. The biological method is also known as bioremediation. Bioremediation is a proven alternative treatment tool that can be used in certain oil-contaminated environments. During the process, microorganisms usually bacteria, algae and fungi, feed on the contaminants. They derive nutrition and energy for growth and reproduction. Specific indigenous microbial communities are likely to contain microbial populations of differing taxonomic relationships which are capable of degrading crude oil spill. The most important genera of hydrocarbon utilizers in aquatic environment include Pseudomonas, Achromobacter, Arthrobacter, Micrococcus, Nocardia, Vibrio, Acinetobacter, Brevibacterium, Corynebacterium, Flavobacterium, Candida, Rhodotorula, Sporobolomyces, cyanobacteria and some algal species such as Oscillatoria sp., Microcoleus sp., Anabaena sp., Agmenellum sp., Coccochloris sp., Nostoc sp., Aphanocapsa sp., Chlorella sp., Dunaliella sp., Chlamydomonas sp., Ulva sp., Cylindretheca sp., Amphora sp., Porphyridium sp., and Petalonia. The use of molecular techniques in producing genetically modified organisms under strict non-proliferation rules provides a huge advantage in improving the use of microorganisms in oil biodegradation. This larger population then is able to degrade the toxins in the oil. This paper aimed at reviewing the possibilities of the application of bioremediation methods in the clean-up of oil spill in Ogoni land and the Niger Delta region at large, in comparison to the world major oil spills recorded with evaluation of the efficacy of the technologies employed.
Keywords: Bioremediation, Ogoni land, Oil spill, microorganisms, biodegradation